Activate Windows using Windows Loader

Windows 8 has become an increasingly popular operating system for both computers and handheld devices despite its shaky start. Most computer users love to keep up with new technologies, and Windows 8 offers new challenges and improvements on previous Microsoft products.

Unfortunately, the trial versions that many have tend to offer minimal functionality. There are a large number of features and programs that are locked by the provider that cannot be accessed until the windows 8 operating system has been activated.

There are several key benefits that Windows 8 activator offers over other options in the market, hence the millions of users across the world that have downloaded it at kmspico.

  • It is safe. Many activators in the market really do have malware in their downloads that can result in you mistakenly adding viruses, trojans and worms to your system. By the time you restore your antivirus you will likely find your system is devastated by their workings.

  • It has been downloaded by millions with mainly positive results. This is perhaps the biggest testament to the effectiveness of Windows 8 activator. Millions have downloaded it and reported permanent activation. Those that experience problems mainly experience them due to failure to carry out certain steps such as temporarily deactivating their antivirus.
  • The results are permanent. A good number of alternative activators to be found online only have a temporary effect. Their access to the full functions of Windows 8 typically lasts 30, 60 or 90 day periods. When this period expires, users often find they have returned to the notifications of their trial periods having expired.
  • Windows Loader is totally free. Daz and his team have worked on several activators and provide them freely each time. There is no registration required, nor any renewals down the line. You simply need to find a reputable source to make use of the download link, and within minutes you are done. Some alternative versions require some payment, registration or even liking them on social media so they have access to your friend list.

T-Card / Intellicharger Page

What is a T-Card?
A T-Card was a special, rare form of Intellivision cartridge which could use ordinary ROMS, instead of the wierd GI ROMS.

Here are some scans of a T-Card circuit board owned by DougM:


“Oh – that’s why they call it a T-Card.. :)

The Intellicharger
The Intellicharger will be a tool which will allow you to attach your computer to your Intellivision system, for the purpose of playing old games or developing and playing new ones. It will be a low-cost alternative to the Magus-2 system, partially based on the T-card design. It is currently under development, but when it’s complete the design will be free, and you will be able to purchase them at a reasonable cost.



Schematics Scans:

  • Astrocade Schematics(NOTE: Better copies of the service manual coming soon!)



Intellivoice Information

ivtitleI am currently reverse-engineering the Intellivoice with the hopes of simulating it, and being able to generate voice data for new games. I have been lucky enough to enlist the help of Ron Carlson, the man who directed the entire Intellivoice Project at Mattel. Much of the info on this page was provided by him. (Thanks Ron!).

Also – I have to thank Mark Magness, who has provided Data Sheets from his GI Databook.

So far, I have:

  • Unpacked the Space Spartans samples to separate, 8-bit files
  • Recreated the analog lowpass filter and volume control section schematic
  • Recieved all the information regarding how the SPB640 maps into the CP1610 address space
  • Begun to implement the digital filter common to the SP0250 and SP0256
  • Table values for the 8-to-10 bit lookup tables done in the SP0256 digital filter

Info Still Needed:

  • Instruction Set for the 4-bit micro inside the SP0256
  • Data Format of the data stream sent to the SP0256

(Without this info I can proceed, but at a slower rate… )

The SPB640
Need Pinout Here

Here is the memory map of the SPB640 with respect to the CP1610 address space, as provided by Ron Carlson:

Valid SPB  Hex  AD2 AD1 AD0   Functions
 addr                         read the SPC cycle            write to SPB cycle
0080             1   0   0    Bit 15 outputs LRQ condition. Bus copy SD0-SD7 to D0-D7
                                                             (speech chip start addr)
0081             1   0   0    Bit 15 outputs full/          Bit 10=0; copies 5D0-5D9
                              not full fifo flag             onto the STACK
                                                            Bit 10=1; clear FIFO array
0082-00FF        1   0   0    copies D0-D7 to SD0-SD7       copy SD0-SD7 to D0-D7
01FE-0BFF        101 - 011    copies D0-D7 to SD0-SD7       copy SD0-SD7 to D0-D7
                 1   1   1    Tri-state SD0-SD15            accepts no inputs

Remember that the data read or written by the CP1610 could be 16-bits wide. SD0-SD7 refers to the peripheral bus that was unused but available for future expansion. At this time I am still a little unclear how the FIFO contents map into the SP0256’s address space, but newly acquired datasheets on the GI serial ROMS should clear this up, I hope.

The SP0256
New Info! – There are documented test modes for the SP0256. This should make it much easier to figure out how it works. See the datasheets for details: Datasheets

The SP0256 contains a 4-bit GI micro, 2K of internal ROM and a 12-pole digital filter. It can be made to speak using its internal ROM data, or using external serial data. This is provided by the SPB640 in the Intellivoice design. (In other applications, it could be provided by a GI serial ROM.)

The internal ROM in the SP0256 used in the Intellivoice was pre-programmed with words and phrases which could be used in all cartridges. One interesting note – The SP0256-AL2 (sold a Radio Shack for a long time), was the same chip programmed with English allophones instead of INTV game phrases!

Instruction SetUnknown to me at this time. I know it had 16 instructions. I believe these include a single level stack, register immediate loads, and register immediate adds/subtracts. I plan to proceed by sending data which consist of Space Spartans samples which have been altered, to see what I can learn.

Data FormatUnknown to me at this time. These should be based on the addressing modes of the micro, I suppose.

Digital Filter – This is a 12-pole digital filter, consisting of 6 cascaded 2nd order stages. The excitation for the filter was either white noise or a series of impulses at the pitch frequency. I believe this filter is identical to the one in the SP0250 chip. The SP0250 data sheet and applications guide has further details.

The Analog Section


I have traced out the low-pass filter section and regenerated a schematic for this here. It is a fifth-order elliptical filter implememented with GIC’s. It was dubbed “the brickwall” for obvious reasons. (>120db attenuation in the stop band) I will be converting it to a digital filter for simulation purposes.

Voice Encoding
This was actually a VERY involved process in the original cartridge development. Cartridge space was critical and so special candidate screening and software processing were done to insure intelligibility and small code space. I’m putting this off until the end.





DASM1600 – An Intellivision Disassembler (binary, source, and doc files for DOS)

This is my second working version of a CP1600 disassembler. I wrote it to allow be to take a look at the code inside the Intellivision.

from dasm1600.txt…

DASM1600.exe v0.3 – by Frank Palazzolo

v0.3 Changes

– Added by J. Zbiciak
— Report R4 .. R7 instead of R0 .. R3 for JSRx insns.
— Properly handle SDBD followed by imm. mode insn.
— Add missing MAYBE_2 calls to RRC, SARC.
— Fix mnemonic:  SUBT -> SUBI
— Fix coredump problems w/ .org:  “scanf(“%d”, &short_var)” is
technically illegal.
— Fixed JSR instruction decoding bug

v0.2 Changes

– Many instructions fixed
– Reversed byte order.  Now defaults to high byte, low byte.
– Fixed a bug with the org statement.  Now defaults to $0000

v0.1 initial release

Release Notes:

This was my first crude attempt at a CP1600/CP1610 disassembler.
Several of us have been using it now with no problems, but if
you find something wrong, please let me know.

Usage: dasm1600 infile

You can redirect the output to a file to capture it.

The symbol file has only three commands, and must be in lower case:

org  XXXX         <– This sets the origin:
data XXXX         <– This defines a word as data
revbytes          <– This reverses the byte order convention of the binary

..where XXXX is the hex representation of the desired address

Because the CP1600 uses 10-bit instructions, the byte order of the binary
file is important.  This program defaults to the high byte, low byte format.

Use the revbytes command to reverse the sense.

This program was compiled with DJGPP for DOS.  It has also been compiled on
Win95 under VC++6.0, as a Windows console mode program.

Hope it’s useful for you!

Frank Palazzolo


General Instruments Speech Synthesizer Chips

The GI SP0250 and SP0256 series speech chips were used for the first wave of commercial voice synthesizers in the late 70’s and early 80’s. In an application, they allow speech data to be stored in a highly compressed format, which was very important in the days when ROM space was expensive. They synthesize speech using a method know as Linear-Predictive Coding (LPC).

Thanks to Mark Magness, the following documents are now available from this site:

SP0250 Data Sheet (zipped PDF)

SP0250 Applications Manual (zipped PDF)

SP0256b Data Sheet (zipped PDF)

SPR016 2Kx8 Serial ROM Data Sheet (zipped PDF)

SPR032 4Kx8 Serial ROM Data Sheet (zipped PDF)

SPR128 8Kx8 Serial ROM Data Sheet (zipped PDF)

Some products which used a GI SP0250 or SP0256:

Arcade Games:
    All Sega G80 Series Games, including...
        Space Fury
        Star Trek
        Astro Blaster

Home Systems:
    Intellivision Intellivoice Module
    "The Voice" module for the Magnavox Odyssey2

I am currently working on simulators for these chips. Information and samples will appear here, as well as here.

The TMS5220 Series Speech Synthesizer

The TI TMS5110/5220 series speech chips were used for the first wave of commercial voice synthesizers in the late 70’s and early 80’s. In an application, they allow speech data to be stored in a highly compressed format, which was very important in the days when ROM space was expensive. They synthesize speech using a method know as Linear-Predictive Coding (LPC).

A data sheet is available as a zipped PDF file, thanks to someone on the net. It’s 2.4 Megs. If you need any more info about this chip, feel free to contact me.

Some products which used a TI TMS5110 or TMS5220:

    Speak 'n Spell

Arcade Games:
    Star Wars
    The Empire Strikes Back
    Gauntlet I/II
    Tron Deadly Disks

Home Computers:
    TI 99/4 Home Computer Voice module

I have written an emulator for this chip, and the source code is available as part of the MAME project. For more info on MAME and other emulators, please check out Dave’s Classics or some such other site. If you want to use the source for something important, please contact me. I’d love to hear from you!